Friday, January 3, 2020

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that stresses on  the development of intelligence machines, thinking and working like humans. For instance speech recognition, problem-solving, learning and planning. Weak or narrow AI  is an AI system that is designed and trained for a particular task. 

AI can be categorized as either weak or strong. Virtual personal assistants are a form of weak AI. Strong AI, also known as artificial general intelligence, is an AI system with generalized and cognitive abilities of humans. A strong AI system is able to find a solution without human intervention. 
allows individuals and companies to experiment with AI for various business purposes. 
Robots  can be used and are being used in many different fields. Their applications are numerous:
1. Industrial applications: Robotics and automation play a important role for mass production of objects in MNC's.

2.Medical applications: To perform the complex operations in delicate regions of the body robots especially nanobots are used.
3. Bionics: It is one of the most popular and advanced field of applications of robotics, where the region of human body which is disabled is replaced by a robotic one and is controlled by muscle simulation. AWESOME ISN'T IT ??.
4.Military: It is applied in military to make the the military operations easy.

Artificial Intelligence And Robotics Are two different fields 

Artificial Intelligence Robot is aimed at manipulating the objects by perceiving, picking, moving, and destroying it. Robotics is a branch of AI, which is composed of different branches and application of robots

Robotics” is the name we give to the field of study to learn and understand and develop new knowledge about the many kinds of robots. This includes the mechanical and electrical engineering as well as the software engineering of the physical robots. It may also include the philosophy, ethics, and other ideas about the use and application of robots.

the AI robot or computer gathers facts about a situation through sensors or human input
Artificial Intelligence Lab, recognizes human body language and voice inflection and responds appropriately,humanoid robots at the AI Lab operate using an unconventional control structure, the robots control lower-level actions with lower-level computers

While emerging technologies can improve the speed, quality, and cost of available goods and services, they may also displace large numbers of workers. 

The rise of artificial intelligence will make most people better off over the next decade, but many have concerns about how advances in AI will affect what it means to be human, to be productive and to exercise free will.

AI is a technology that is transforming every walk of life. It is a wide-ranging tool that enables people to rethink how we integrate information, analyze data, and use the resulting insights to improve decision-making. Our hope through this comprehensive overview is to explain AI to an audience of policymakers, opinion leaders, and interested observers, and demonstrate how AI already is altering the world and raising important questions for society, the economy, and governance.

GoalArtificial intelligence main goal is develop intelligent machines that could learn on their own. No more human intervention for feeding data to machines. With artificial intelligence one can develop machines that can read and understand human languages are known as Natural learning processing.Artificial intelligence is a science and technology based on disciplines such as Computer Science, Biology, Psychology, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Engineering. A major thrust of AI is in the development of computer functions associated with human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, and problem solving.Applications of AI

                 intelligent when it is equipped with at least one and at most all intelligences in it.
What is Intelligence Composed of?
  • Reasoning
  • Learning
  • Problem Solving
  • Perception
  • Linguistic Intelligence

AI has been dominant in various fields such as −
  • Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine can think of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
  • Natural Language Processing − It is possible to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
  • Expert Systems − There are some applications which integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They provide explanation and advice to the users.
  • Vision Systems − These systems understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
    • A spying aero plane takes photographs, which are used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
    • Doctors use clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
    • Police use computer software that can recognize the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
  • Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems are capable of hearing and comprehending the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It can handle different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.
  • Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.
  • Intelligent Robots − Robots are able to perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they are capable of learning from their mistakes and they can adapt to the new environment.
  • Artificial Intelligence is the study and practice of building systems that can solve complex tasks in ways that would traditionally need human intelligence.
The intelligence is intangible. It is composed of −
Components of Intelligence
Let us go through all the components briefly −
  • Reasoning − It is the set of processes  provides basis for judgments, decisions, and predictions. There are broadly two types −
Inductive ReasoningDeductive Reasoning
It  observes broad general statements.general statement and examines the possibilities to reach a particular conclusion.
Even if  true  statements, conclusions is false.If  true the conclusion is false

  • Learning − It is the activity of gaining knowledge or skill by studying, practising, being taught, or experiencing something. Learning enhances the awareness of the subjects of the study.
    The ability of learning is possessed by humans, some animals, and AI-enabled systems. Learning is categorized as −
    • Auditory Learning − It is learning by listening and hearing. For example, students listening to recorded audio lectures.
    • Episodic Learning − To learn by remembering sequences of events that one has witnessed or experienced. This is linear and orderly.
    • Motor Learning − It is learning by precise movement of muscles. For example, picking objects, Writing, etc.
    • Observational Learning − To learn by watching and imitating others. For example, child tries to learn by mimicking her parent.
    • Perceptual Learning − It is learning to recognize stimuli that one has seen before. For example, identifying and classifying objects and situations.
    • Relational Learning − It involves learning to differentiate among various stimuli on the basis of relational properties, rather than absolute properties. For Example, Adding ‘little less’ salt at the time of cooking potatoes that came up salty last time, when cooked with adding say a tablespoon of salt.
    • Spatial Learning − It is learning through visual stimuli such as images, colors, maps, etc. For Example, A person can create road-map in mind before actually following the road.
    • Stimulus-Response Learning − It is learning to perform a particular behavior when a certain stimulus is present. For example, a dog raises its ear on hearing doorbell.
  • Problem Solving − It is the process in which one perceives and tries to arrive at a desired solution from a present situation by taking some path, which is blocked by known or unknown hurdles.
    Problem solving also includes decision making, which is the process of selecting the best suitable alternative out of multiple alternatives to reach the desired goal are available.
  • Perception − It is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information.
    Perception presumes sensing. In humans, perception is aided by sensory organs. In the domain of AI, perception mechanism puts the data acquired by the sensors together in a meaningful manner.
  • Linguistic Intelligence − It is one’s ability to use, comprehend, speak, and write the verbal and written language. It is important in interpersonal communication.

                In this way the applications can be listed enormously.      

                   Finally I conclude by saying that 

The overall research goal of artificial intelligence is to create technology  that allows computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner. 

                 The general problem of  simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into sub- problems.      

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