Sunday, November 24, 2019

Robotics can- change our lives in the near future

 Robots have become The Necessity in Life-  

    All Thanks to the fields of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics that our lives in the near  future will and have changed for the Better
The working and programming of Robots      
 The Machine that resembles a living creature in being capable of moving independently (as by walking or rolling on wheels) and performing complex actions (such as grasping and moving objects 'are becoming the most important thing in our lives!! are known as Robots. 

'Robot' was first applied as a term for artificial automata in the 1920 play R.U.R. by the Czech writer, Karel Čapek.

Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots.
1. One method is evolutionary robotics, in which a number of differing robots are submitted to      tests. Those which perform best are used as a model to create a subsequent "generation" of robots
2. Another method is developmental robotics, which tracks changes and development within a single robot in the areas of problem-solving and other functions. Another new type of robot is just recently introduced which acts both as a smartphone and robot and is named RoboHon

Modern robots

Mobile robots have the capability to move around in their environment and are not fixed in one location. 
Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments, consumer products like vacuum cleaning. Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every researcher focus on mobile robot.
Industrial robots usually consist of (multi-linked manipulator) and an end effector that is attached to a fixed surface. One of the most common type of end effector is a gripper assembly
Industrial robots are fixed robotic arms and manipulators used primarily for production and distribution of goods while a service robot is a robot which operates semi- or fully autonomously to perform services useful to the well-being of humans and equipment.
Robots are used as educational assistants to teachers
There are robot kits like Lego MindstormsBIOLOID, OLLO from ROBOTIS, or BotBrain Educational Robots can help children to learn about mathematics, physics, programming, and 

Image result for lego mindstorms ev3 software"

Robotics have also been introduced into the lives of elementary and high school students in the form of robot competitions with the company FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology). The organization is the foundation for the FIRST Robotics CompetitionFIRST LEGO LeagueJunior FIRST LEGO League, and FIRST Tech Challenge competitions.

Modular robots are a new breed of robots that are designed to increase the utilization of robots.
These robots are composed of a single type of identical, several different identical module types, or similarly shaped modules, which vary in size.
Modular robotic technology is currently being applied in hybrid transportation, industrial automation  of goods.

collaborative robot is a robot that can safely and effectively interact with human workers while performing simple industrial task It is designed to safely interact with neighboring human workers & 
Image result for MILITARY ROBOT"

The US Navy has funded a report which indicates that, as military robots become more complex, there should be greater attention to implications of their ability to make autonomous decisions. One researcher states that autonomous robots might be more humane, as they could make decisions more 
General-purpose  robots
General-purpose autonomous robots can perform a variety of functions independently.
General-purpose autonomous robots typically can navigate independently in known spaces, handle their own re-charging needs, interface with electronic doors and elevators and perform other basic tasks.
Factory robots
Car production
Over the last three decades, automobile factories have become dominated by robots. A typical factory contains hundreds of industrial robots working on fully automated production lines, with one robot for every ten human workers. On an automated production line, a vehicle chassis on a conveyor is weldedglued, painted and finally assembled at a sequence of robot stations.
Industrial robots are also used extensively for palletizing and packaging of manufactured goods, for example for rapidly taking drink cartons from the end of a conveyor belt and placing them into boxes, or for loading and unloading machining centers.
Mass-produced printed circuit boards (PCBs) are almost exclusively manufactured by pick-and-place robots, typically with SCARA manipulators, which remove tiny electronic components from strips or trays, and place them on to PCBs with great accuracy Such robots can place hundreds of thousands of components per hour, far out-performing a human in speed, accuracy, and reliability

Types of robots
There are many ways how you could possibly define different types of robots. As I have seen the possible divisions vary widely. The main reason of these differences is that different tutors often tend to have different views on what should be taught under "robotics".
For example - some tutors that teach robotics usually focus mainly on industrial robotics, neglecting service robots completely. Therefore when talking about types of robots they usually talk about types of industrial robots. There is a strong reason for this though - the vast majority of robotics engineers will have to deal mostly with industrial robots in their careers.
Nevertheless, industrial robots are not the only ones. Therefore, as I see it when dividing robots into types this division should be broad enough to include everything that can be understood as a robot.
There are two possible ways how this could be done. First, you could divide robots into types by their application and second - by the way they move (or don't). I acknowledge that there are other possible ways how to divide robots into types but in my opinion these two are the best. Also, I prefer to use both these classifications together. This way two questions about a robot would already be answered - "What it does?" and "How it does it?"
Types of robots by application
Nowadays, robots do a lot of different tasks in many fields and the number of jobs entrusted to robots is growing steadily. That's why in my opinion one of the best ways how to divide robots into types is a division by their application.
There are:

*Industrial robots - Industrial robots are robots used in an industrial manufacturing environment. Usually these are articulated arms specifically developed for such applications as welding, material handling, painting and others. If we judge purely by application this type could also include some automated guided vehicles and other robots.

*Domestic or household robots - Robots used at home. This type of robots includes many quite different devices such as robotic vacuum cleaners, robotic pool cleaners, sweepers, gutter cleaners and other robots that can do different chores. Also, some surveillance and telepresence robots could be regarded as household robots if used in that environment.

*Medical robots - Robots used in medicine and medical institutions. First and foremost - surgery robots. Also, some automated guided vehicles and maybe lifting aides.

*Service robots - Robots that don
t fall into other types by usage. These could be different data gathering robots, robots made to show off technologies, robots used for research, etc.

*Military robots - Robots used in military. This type of robots includes bomb disposal robots, different transportation robots, reconnaissance drones. Often robots initially created for military purposes can be used in law enforcement, search and rescue and other related fields.

*Entertainment robots - These are robots used for entertainment. This is a very broad category. It starts with toy robots such as robosapien or the running alarm clock and ends with real heavyweights such as articulated robot arms used as motion simulators.

*Space robots - I
d like to single out robots used in space as a separate type. This type would include robots used on the International Space Station, Canadarm that was used in Shuttles, as well as Mars rovers and other robots used in space.

*Hobby and competition robots - Robots that you create. Line followers, sumo-bots, robots made just for fun and robots made for competition.
Now, as you can see there are examples that fit into more than one of these types. For example, there can be a deep sea exploration robot that can gather some valuable information that can be used for military purposes.
Also, I have seen that a division into two types is used, accordingly - industrial and service robots. However, I can not see how a Mars exploration rover fits into one of these general types. Therefore I have used "service robots" in a narrower manner. In my version a term "service robots" serves as "others". This is basically a type where robots that don't fit into other types should fall in.
Types of robots by locomotion and kinematics
As you can understand, robot's application alone does not provide enough information when talking about a specific robot. For example an industrial robot - usually, when talking about industrial robots we think of stationary robots in a work cell that do a specific task. That's alright, but if there is an AGV (Automated Guided Vehicle) in a factory? Its also a robotic device working in an industrial environment. So, I propose to use both these classifications together.

So there are:
1. Stationary robots (including robotic arms with a global axis of movement)

1.1 Cartesian/Gantry robots

1.2 Cylindrical robots

1.3 Spherical robots
1.4 SCARA robots
1.5 Articulated robots (robotic arms)
1.6 Parallel robots

2. Wheeled robots
2.2 Two-wheel robots
2.3 Three and more wheel robots

3. Legged robots
3.1 Bipedal robots (humanoid robots)
3.2 Tripedal robots
3.3 quadrupedal robots
3.4 hexapod robots
3.5 other number of legs

4. Swimming robots
5. Flying robots
7. Swarm robots
8. Others

Wondering about others? Yes, there are others. For example snake-like robots. There are many fields of research that deal with different innovative types of robots. Someday they will be very useful. However, by now I'll put them under the "others" type.
Still, in my opinion these types of classification do their job well enough to satisfy human want.
Many future applications of robotics seem obvious to people, even though they are well beyond the capabilities of robots available at the time of the prediction. As early as 1982 people were confident that someday robots would: 1. Clean parts by removing molding flash 2. Spray paint automobiles with absolutely no human presence 3. Pack things in boxes—for example, orient and nest chocolate candies in candy boxes 4. Make electrical cable harness 5. Load trucks with boxes—a packing problem 6. Handle soft goods, such as garments and shoes 7. Shear sheep 8. prosthesis 9. Cook fast food and work in other service industries 10. Household robot.
Generally such predictions are overly optimistic in timescale.
In Conclusion !!Robotics can - and will - change our lives in the near future.

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